Sunday, August 18, 2019
Cixous's The Laugh of the Medusa Critiqued Against Showalter's Essay Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness In learning about feminist theory this semester, one idea that arose from class discussions was the notion of essentialism. Essentialism, a theory that stresses essence as opposed to existence, was discussed at length and while some classmates found it to reductionary and cliché, it is a question that I assume must be asked of ecriture feminine writing. Does ecriture feminine writing essentialize women? If it does, is essentializing women problematic? One critique of ecriture feminine by the feminist critique and gynocricitics is that the former essentializes women. In my own understanding of feminist theory, I have related to ecriture feminine in my writing and believe that women should write from their bodies, should write as women, but there were some interesting points raised in class by classmates who do not argue with ecirture feminine's position. This paper will look at the issue surround essentialism; whether a woman writing from her body essentializes women. Ironically, although I find the writing of ecriture feminine writers to be engaging, stimulating and meaningful, I have chosen to write this paper in a linear, structured and straightforward manner. As an exegesis piece of work, I still believe that the notions of writing from female experience and acknowledging female difference are possible. I will look at an example of Ecriture Feminine writing, that of French feminist Helene Cixous's "The Laugh of the Medusa". This work will then be c... ... is clearly a gynocritic, I argue that she can be seen to support the movement to an ecriture feminine way of looking at women's writing and language. My reasoning behind this argument is that I believe the reason why Showalter objects to ecriture feminine writing is because she believes that ecriture feminine essentializes women and that sees essentialism to be harmful to feminist theory. Because I do not think that ecirture feminine essentializing women (in a problematic way), I argue that Showalter can reinforce the notions behind ecriture feminine. Showalter argues that we "need to ask much more searchingly what we want to know and how we can find answers to the questions that come from our experience" (Showalter 2000: 311).
Saturday, August 17, 2019
1) What is the cause of the problems described in the case? How serious are these problems? The problem is a law suit that is being filed by the sales associates against Raleigh and Rosse. The sales associates are unimpressed by the amount of hours they are forced to work and that many of these hours are unpaid and their services may be required at any time. The reason that employees are frustrated can be derived from how their performance is measured. Employee productivity at R&R is measured by their sales per hour ratio (revenue-return/hours worked). The main flaw in this method is that employees are expected to do both on the floor selling work, and additional work. Everyone in the company needs to maintain a standard for SPH or else they will receive worse shifts which will likely lead to their departure from the company. Operating under this model provides incentives for employees not to submit how many off the clock hours they have worked in order to increase their SPH and hopefully make room for promotion and bonuses. However it is ethically and legally wrong to not pay or harm an employee for putting in more time. This issue is very serious as it may cost R&R over 200 million dollars as well as damage their reputation. 2) Are R&R employees pressured inappropriately by the sales-per-hour system? By management? Yes, R&R employees are pressured inappropriately by this sales per hour system. The SPH ratio is vital to an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s success with the company and the metric incentivises employees to not account for all of the hours they put in. Employees are forced to donate their time to the company to provide services off of the books. The reason that the company outperforms its competitors is because it asks too much of its employees. This model likely would not be profitable if the firm all of the costs that should be associated with running the company this way and that is why their competition is not doing it. 3) How would you redesign performance management at R&R?
Friday, August 16, 2019
How did the 9/11 bring people together? Or Did the 9/11 bring people together? The 9/11 was a very significant event and brought many people together in many different ways. In circumstances of extreme stress we hear moving accounts of people going out of their way to help each other. Studies show that acute stress can lead to greater cooperative, social and friendly behaviour, even in men. This more positive reaction can help the human connections that occurred during the time of crisis associated with the 9/11.Social connections are particularly important under stress because stress naturally leads so a sense of vulnerability and loss of control, this is an example of why the people of not only America, but the world came together through this tormenting time to support one another. The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks launched upon the United States in New York and Washington D. C area by an Islamic terrorist group, al-Qaeda. On the morning of September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four passenger jets.American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Centre as suicide attacks. Both towers collapsed and debris led to the partial collapse of all other buildings in the New York World Trade Centre. The third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon, which was the headquarters of the United States Department of Defence. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was targeted at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. , but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after its passengers fought back against the al-Qaeda terrorists. Almost 3000 people died in the 9/11 attacks. An example of the 9/11 bringing people together is the cooperation of different religious groups. Churches that typically held services only on Sundays opened their doors on the Tuesday of the attacks and held them open for some followi ng days and for a short time attendance in churches and other houses of worship skyrocketed.Members of religious groups met together and tried to understand each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs to help one another. A decade later, a group of religious leaders representing the Christian, Islamic and Jewish faiths met to plan a special interfaith service for the 10th anniversary of the 9/11. The service included prayers, music, Scripture and short messages from participants. The organisers went to great lengths to celebrate religious diversity and to make sure readings and prayers are as universal as possible.Deidre Gordon, a member of the Islamic centre reinforced the idea of the 9/11 bringing people together. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a chance to recognize beneath all this diversity, we have a lot we share. Ã¢â¬ We hear often hear moving stories of strangers coming together to help save each other from the burning buildings, one of which I came across was this; Ã¢â¬Å"Today, after a 72 hour shif t at the fire station, a woman ran up to me at the grocery store and gave me a hug. When I tensed up, she realized I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t recognise her.She let go with tears of joy in her eyes and said, Ã¢â¬Å"On 9-11-2001, you carried me out of the World Trade Centre. Ã¢â¬ As you can see the 9/11 did bring people together, 12 years ago, President George W. Bush proclaimed, Ã¢â¬Å"America is united. Ã¢â¬ The production of American flags surged and the flags soared, and America really was united. America mourned together, raged together and resolved together. They reached out to others in a way most didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do previously.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The episode presented in this case study give rise to Moral Sense Test directed to analyzing human moral judgments. The issue of saving a large woman to save 22 tourists behind her, driving a boat faster to save life of five people from drowning and at the same time letting one person to fall of and drown, failure to give a drug to a terminally ill person in knowledge that he may die without it and his organs may be used to safe some other three persons, and suffocating your baby with aim of averting an enemy from finding both of you and kill and other eight hiding with you presents a moral dilemma situation directed towards scrutinizing psychological mechanism basic to social moral judgment. Situation leading to moral dilemma has been capturing human attention towards how people judge certain affairs, deciding on justified and unjustified situations as well as social views on right and wrong action. Debate on moral decision has been has been a contentious issue with philosophers speculating how people have been making moral decision in the society. Scenarios presented by this paper give a situation which has for long been pondered by philosophers as well other professional on whether to sacrifice one for a greater good. Utilitarian ethical theory support option of sacrificing one to protect many. Many societies seems to value the utilitarian option but there is a considerable emotional element given that verdict involves harming a human being. Any of decision made on these scenarios results to a moral tug of war between whether to kill one person as in the case of killing huge woman to save 22 tourist, sacrificing one person to save five from drowning, sacrifice on ill person to save three and sacrificing a child to save you and others with sympathy of killing a human being. Moral theories Egoism as an ethical theory entails individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self is the motivation and the goal of individualÃ¢â¬â¢s own accomplishment. Egoism has two folds i. e. descriptive and normative. Descriptive also called positive variant, define egoism as explanation of human affairs meaning individuals are motivated by self interest and desires while normative ethics elaborates that people should be motivated. Ethical egoism an individual have no duty anyone but to him/herself. Meaning that, every person should strive satisfy his or her individual interests maximizing own welfare. According to egoism, each individual has a goal of his ownÃ¢â¬ ¦This diversity of goals may endanger conflict. This is not an objection to ethical egoism, however. When people have goals in conflict, each individual ought, according to egoism, to maintain his or her goal. Ethical egoism is a consistent ethical theory, in competition with other ethical theories,Ã¢â¬ (Tannsjo 2002 pp 42). From the above quote we can say that according to egoism theory you act wrongly when if you do not strive to maximize your interest. Maximizing of interest means that an individual can go to an extent of doing harm in order to protect his/her interests. The egoist is prepared to kill, not only in order to save many lives but in order to save his or her own life. Therefore, in the scenarios presented in our case study when considering egoism ethical theory means that when doing any act you should consider your interests. For example an egoist would consider saving digging a woman and making 22 tourists to perish and sacrificing woman life to save tourist will depend on different interests according to egoism theory. That is can sacrifice the whole group or to save large woman according to whom we have interest in and vice-versa. Being a subject of Moral Sense Test based on egoism moral theory I would drown person in the falling from the boat to save other five based on my interests. If I am more affiliated to the falling person, according to egoism I would let five to perish and save the one I have interest in. In case my interest is more to the five people I would work to save them making the falling person to die. In the case where am to suffocate my screaming my screaming baby to save myself and other eight hiding with me would be a better option considering egoism theory. This is due to individual interest of living taking more priority than that of the baby hence saving other eight people. Faced with scenario of sacrificing failing to give drug to a terminally ill patient knowing that he will die but his organs could be used to save other three patient considering egoism theory would mean to fall the self interest in this scenario. Saving three persons to the expense of sacrificing one terminally ill patient means that my interest for example if patient is my relative. On the other hand if I have more interest to a more terminally ill patient I would not fail to give drug making other three to die according to egoism theory of maximizing of interests. Conventional morality can be described as a morality of established local practice or a part of morality that directs people day to day life. Ã¢â¬Å"Conventional morality defines responsibilities, gives direction to action, helps to organize social life. It establishes expectations and thereby give guidance for personal developmentÃ¢â¬ (DeMarco 1994 pp. 24). This means that it is a fixed pattern of individual or a professional governing a particular role, giving boundaries of action, dependencies as well as patterns of authority. That is society or individuals have moral responsibility based on conventions and violations of conventions mean individual actions are immoral. In the three scenarios presented in case study in this context conventional morality theory would looking at different laid down standard in trying to save different dilemmas. Incase of saving a five from drowning to the expense of saving the one falling and vise versa would depend on morals raid down. If my society moral dictates that saving many would be the most moral, according to conventional morality I would strive to save the five and let the falling person to die even if it is my relative since these are set convention and must be followed. In case it is refusing to give terminally ill patient drug making his to die and use his organ to save the three will depend on convention set by the hospital and act according to them. Suffocating my baby so that I can save myself and other eight persons from attacks of an enemy would depend on set societal convention which may favor suffocating my baby or letting all to die all together. For example if conventions dictates that I should strive to save many, suffocating of my baby may be an option and this would be morally upright according to conventional theory of morality. Moral dilemmas have presented various arguments making some of philosophers to argue that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦doing the right is whatever produce the greatest balance over evilÃ¢â¬ ¦This view has been called Ã¢â¬ËutilitarianismÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëconsequentialism. Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËUtilitarianismÃ¢â¬â¢ tends to be associated with the view that Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ means a balance of pleasure over painÃ¢â¬ ¦or perhaps some more sophisticated Ã¢â¬ËhappinessÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Hallquist, 2008 para. 5). According to Hallquist (2008), when applying utilitarianism theory of morality to moral dilemma where you have an option of killing one person to save many, an individual is requires to kill one and save many. This situation presents a greater evil or prevents a greater evil according to Utilitarianism theory of morality. There have been options when you can consider killing many and save one for example if killing the five would prevent a deadly riot would allow for saving one person instead. According to utilitarianism, killing someone harvest organ to save the five individuals would be a better evil. This means that the case presented in the case study in the context of this paper about refusing to give drug to terminally ill patient letting him to die and using his organ to heal other persons would be a better choice according to utilitarianism. Letting the falling person to die and save and saving five droning persons would be the better evil instead of saving one and letting five to die. Suffocating a my screaming baby according to utilitarianism theory of morality would be a better evil than letting myself and eight people accompanying me to die. Theory of duty ethics also called deontological morality theory view morality through probing the nature of actions and will of agents instead of results achieved i. e. looking at input instead of the outcomes. Incase of killing one person to save many for example a situation where the doctor would sacrifice life of one person and use his organ to save five, duty of ethics opposes this. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the agent should not kill the one person because if he does that he will produce worse state of affairs, as seen from his position. That he should not kill is the result that deontologist endorse as wellÃ¢â¬ (Kamm 1993 pp. 5). According to duty ethic correctness of an accomplishment is not simply reliant on exploiting the good, if that accomplishment goes in opposition to what is consider moral. This means that the scenarios where am require not to give drug and to let terminally ill person to die and save three from his organ would be immoral from duty ethics. This is because by refusing to give drug is immoral no matter the good it can contribute of saving three persons. Letting the falling from the boat to save the five persons from drowning is immoral according to duty of ethics. On the issue of suffocating my baby it may be immoral to do that because in the first place is illegal to do that hence letting the worst to strike. Virtue of ethics emphasizes that; morality should be guided by character rather than established rules or procedures. This theory is greatly dependent on wisdom to direct an individual to do what he/she feel is moral. Virtue of ethics encompasses trait like honesty and generosity in performance of a moral duty. In the case of moral dilemma of killing on person to save many will be judged from what the person in this situation feel is morally upright. Moral principles The above analysis of the moral theory do not give define solution and are inadequate when giving solution to various situations for example moral dilemma episodes. Seven moral principles give an alternative in trying to get solution on moral decision. Moral principles define the right and wrong accepted an individual or a society to a certain situation or are universal rules that guide an individuals or a society on what to do. That is, they are standard for good behavior in the society. Moral decision making process is the process in which an individual tries to implement a balance of the seven moral principles in a given situation. The seven moral principles are; Respect, Non-Malevolence, Benevolence, Integrity, Justice, Utility and Double Effect. The lists of moral principle incorporate many cultures to serve purpose of morality. According to the principles of morality a moral action should be guide by the application of the most appropriate principle(s). Principle of respect calls for treating everybody with respect together with application of dignity and importance of a person(s) not matter the diversity. Non-malevolence principle calls for avoiding harming people or even causing pain to them. Benevolence principle tries to promote well-being of others. That is it emphasize on responding in the needs of other. This should be consistent to promoting spiritual and cultural belief and values. Principle of integrity advocates for maintaining personal standards for example in the professional environment. In application to the episode of killing one to save many, moral principle provides with a range choice in coming with appropriate action. Conclusion Application of moral theory and moral principles should be directed by the intention of being morally upright in the social operation. There intention is to guide person and society at large to have a common way of handling their affairs for common good. Moral theories and principles are motivated greatly by the social need toward an upright society. Social life presents different circumstances in life and hence many moral theories and principle geared toward giving moral solution to different social circumstances.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
To find a great modern day leader with a life full of integrity is nearly impossible to do, but Reverend Billy Graham definitely fits the bill. This essay will attempt to show how the Reverend is able to bundle his personal characteristics up to provide dynamic and powerful messages that have provided hope, peace, and courage to millions of people through the past several decades. Billy Graham was not born a leader, but when he found his purpose, he became an unstoppable force that defines leadership. To be a good leader, one must exhibit certain traits, skills, and behaviors. Through traits like honesty, integrity, self confidence, motivation, and knowledge, Reverend Graham is able connect with huge groups of people who are searching for direction in their personal lives. Through careful research and studying, he has been able to compile knowledge and wisdom, and apply that in his sermons. He could grab the attention of thousands in a stadium with his communication skills. He is organized and has shown people how to live by example. To some, his style of preaching may seem tough, but he shares what he believes. He lays it all on the line, and it is up to the people to decide where to go next. The Reverend does not think of what he does as a responsibility or burden, but rather an opportunity to share what he is passionate about with others so that they can feel the same joy that he does. As alluded to earlier, leaders must have certain traits to be successful and Billy Graham has just about every trait that defines a successful leader. Recently, the Reverend was interviewed by Dr. ThomRainer who is the CEO of Lifeway Christian Resources. After the interview Dr. Rainer said,Ã¢â¬Å"The name of Billy Graham inevitably reminds us of integrity. His is a life that did not compromise morally. Hehas lead a life of incredible honesty. Leadership at any level cannot begin to function well unless the leader has integrity. Ã¢â¬ (Rainer 2009). Not only does Reverend Graham have integrityand honesty, but he has self confidence, motivation, and knowledge. In a country that is known for having very egotistical and self centered leaders, Billy Graham sets himself apart from the pack. There are stories after stories of people that have been emotionally touched by this man. He is known to not even talk about himself in an interview, but be more interested in the reporter, and where they come from, their family and their personal walk with God. This illustration shows that when a person talks to Billy Graham he is actually asserting true self confidence even though he is not talking about himself. He has a motivation to convey his message to that person towards the end of the conversation, and he has the knowledge after he has found out about their background to share that message when he has found a common ground with them. He is a master of all traits that personify a leader and he can lead a person where he wants them to go without them even realizing it. Reverend Billy Graham has skills that were not only obtained though studying scripture and other books in his profession, but most importantly, through listening to others and gaining a certain knowledge and understanding of people. The Reverend does Ã¢â¬Å"CrusadesÃ¢â¬ all over the world and offers an invitation at the end to invite people to know Jesus in their heart. He has reached almost three million people in his Ã¢â¬Å"CrusadesÃ¢â¬ alone which shows that he has a way of teaching and reaching people in a powerful way. He is able to consolidate the most compelling words and sentences into his sermons instead of losing people to boredom, or not finding a piece of his message that will strike at least one nerve with everyone in the audience. He can build a bridgewith people of completely different ideological views. Author Maynard Stoddard said, Ã¢â¬Å"No religious crusader has carried the gospel message to more people in more lands, presented that message with more power or authority, or stirred a deeper response in his listeners. Ã¢â¬ (Stoddard 1986). He has spent personal time with twelve United States Presidents dating back to Harry S. Truman. He has counseled presidents and kings all over the world, yet continues to retain the skill of being humble. He realizes that he too is a follower and without his leader he would not be anyone. He understands what he has is a gift. Everyone needs a level of self-awareness about their talents and abilities. As a leader, this is even more important because you serve your team or organization best when your gifts are being used and brought to their fullest potential. These skills coupled with the traits that have been talked about create an irrepressible leader. Lastly, a leader must have a certain style or behavior to be a leader. Billy Graham is able to combine his goal of getting his message and vision across to everyone in a very tough, directand sometimes rigid way, but at the same time he makes people feel comfortable by showing them positive things that can happen in their lives. He is easily able to tell testimonies, build trust and respect based on commonalities, and then lay out a Ã¢â¬Å"plan of salvationÃ¢â¬ for the audience. He wants as many people to accept Jesus into their hearts as possible, but numbers are not everything. He wants people to truly understand the message, and not make a decision based on emotions, but one based on a truth that they can follow forever. According to Blake and MoutonÃ¢â¬â¢s Leadership Grid, Reverend Graham is a team leader. He has a song emphasis on the task and the people. He wants participation, he makes the message very clear so there are no misunderstandings, he loves preaching because it is his passion, and even though he is in a profession where he could do all the talking, he continues to keep an open mind so he can learn from others and adapt to new situations. Even though there are several different and acceptable types of leaders, these attributes help to show the style of leadership that has molded Mr. Graham into being such a successful leader. In conclusion, Reverend Graham has defined what a leader should be. He has been able to become a successful leader mainly through understanding the fine line between being very rigid and being what people consider to be a dreamer. He has clearly been able to walk that line and not stray from it at all. After 93 years on this earth, he is still pursuing his passion. People still leave feeling like they know him personally and feeling a sense of validation.
Cohn's Strategic Trade Theory - Assignment Example There is a theory that describes this sought of setting called the competitive theory. As for the comparative trade theory, an example that can demonstrate the theory can be; take to countries which are both good at producing two products (Cohn, 171). For both countries, their resources are limited, and this means that they can only produce a limited number of goods. When one country increases the production of one product, the other productÃ¢â¬â¢s production is lowered. Each of the individual countries can produce either good, but for trade purposes, one country produces one product more efficiently while the other does the same to another product. This will lead to both trading and mutually benefiting (Comparative Advantage Theory) According to Cohn, there are certain theories that helped Japan become second to the United States. These theories provide an understanding of how Japan became successful. The theories are associated with the comparative advantage. They are; theory of production economies of scale, market power, learning by doing and the theory of externalities. According to Cohn, Japan realized the trade benefits of comparative trading (Gilpin and Jean, 78). Japan and the United States are two countries that are different.
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Potencial investors - Assignment Example At the input site, there is an installed automatic camera and a point for placing the thumb. It is then connected to a computer, a bell and alarm system at the output. The input system is placed outside the gate. The system will enhance security in that when one place his/her thumb at the input system, the automatic camera records the image and the fingerprints. The image of the person at the gate can then remain transmitted to the computer located in either the house or the security personnel office. In case the bio-data is of the family member, the computer controlled bell system automatically rings. However, in case the bio-data is for a non-family member, there is activation of the alarm system to alert the family member of the presence of a stranger in the gate. The concerned member can then alert the security through contacts available in the system in case the stranger raises suspicion. The whole process of developing the idea to certification by the national Security Council requires an estimate of 400, 000 US dollars whereas the advertisement and testing fee will cost another 150,000 US dollars. The cost of installation to the first 500 customers will cost an estimate of 100,000 US dollars. The business idea therefore requires a total of approximately 700,000 US dollars to start. The business has a prospect of engaging the federal government in case of success, making huge profits to the investors. With the ease of availability of the computers, the company will develop the software, the alarm and bell system. The company will as well attract investors from the National Security Council who will partly help in the development of the system and sell the idea to the government more easily. I interviewed three prominent potential ICT investors including Miller Collen, Pearson Todd, and Sander Preston. The three investors I had contacted and interviewed showed lots of optimism and